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Book Summary: Change Your Brain, Change Your Life – The Breakthrough Program for Conquering Anxiety, Depression, Obsessiveness, Anger, and Impulsiveness

Unlock your brain’s full potential with cutting-edge techniques and personalized brain health approaches detailed in this revised and updated version of the original Change Your Brain, Change Your Life (1999) by Dr. Daniel G. Amen.

Introduction: Train your brain, change your life.

Today, you can peer into the brain to understand how it works, and optimize its performance. Such is the power of brain imaging technology.

In this summary to Change Your Brain, Change Your Life by Dr. Daniel G. Amen, you’ll explore how brain imaging technology can revolutionize your health and wellness game and dive into important principles of brain health and different brain systems. You will also uncover a practical guide to optimizing brain performance and managing mental health conditions through nutrition, exercise, sleep, and stress management.

Ready to become a brain warrior and master your mind’s inner workings? Let’s begin!

Book Summary: Change Your Brain, Change Your Life - The Breakthrough Program for Conquering Anxiety, Depression, Obsessiveness, Anger, and Impulsiveness

Brain imaging changes everything

If you’ve ever struggled with anxiety, depression, or another mental health condition, you know how challenging it can be to find the right treatment. Sometimes medications can help alleviate symptoms, but they’re not a cure-all.

Enter Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography brain imaging technology – or SPECT.

According to the author, SPECT imaging allows us to see blood flow and activity patterns in the brain, providing insights into brain functions that were previously inaccessible. It can identify specific brain patterns associated with various mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD.

By understanding these patterns, it’s easier to develop targeted interventions that address the root causes of these conditions, rather than just treating the symptoms.

The SPECT approach challenges the perception that individuals with mental illness have a certain degree of control over their condition. As author Diana Spechler once discovered, many people believe those with mental health conditions can simply “snap out of it” or choose to feel better. But depression and other mental health conditions have a biological and medical basis. According to the author, SPECT imaging will eventually enable targeted treatments that could make all the difference.

Now that you know how brain imaging technology lets you glean brain function and supports targeted interventions, it’s time to uncover the technical formulas for brain health.

Key Formulas for Brain Health

Do you need help focusing at work or remembering important life events? Are you often anxious or depressed? Though common, these experiences can challenge your overall well-being if left unchecked. This is where brain health is crucial.

The author lives by twelve brain-health principles, but the following four stand out.

First: The brain is malleable, which eases cognitive function. Second: It’s involved in everything we do and central to our overall health. Third: It’s self-directed, meaning it has a degree of control over its function. Fourth: It can bounce back from injuries or diseases with proper intervention.

Knowing these features of the brain, why wouldn’t we want to boost its performance holistically, right? To do so, let’s focus on the “four circles” approach to brain health.

Developed by Dr. Sid Garrett, the former dean of Oral Roberts University’s School of Medicine, this approach addresses brain health through biological health, mental health, social connections and spiritual fulfillment – also known as “circles.”

Optimal exercise, nutrition and sleep can improve your brain power. Taking 15,000 steps daily can improve blood flow, reduce inflammation, and stimulate new brain cells. A diet of lean proteins, healthy fats, fibrous greens, and fruit can feed your brain, and seven to nine hours of good sleep per night add to your glow.

Meanwhile, addressing the psychological circle of brain health requires looking at stress management, cognitive stimulation, and mental health support. There’s a reason why work-life balance is an important concept today: chronic stress can damage the brain over time and spur cognitive decline. To avoid this, pursue mental activities such as chess and card games whenever you can, and rely on a good therapist to keep your psyche in check.

Maintaining the social circle of brain health is about building and maintaining strong social connections for brain health. Strong social connections provide emotional support, cognitive stimulation, and a sense of belonging, all crucial for brain health. Notice how those regular phone calls with your loved ones keep you in a good mood.

Then, there’s the spiritual circle to care for. This aspect involves having purpose and meaning in life. So remember: Every time you meditate, pray, or do volunteer work to help people in need, you’ll feel good, which supports your brain health.

Now that you know what goes into brain health work, it’s time to know the organ’s mechanisms to elevate your mind.

Know Your Brain

Why do some people have an ear for music while others struggle to carry a tune? And why are some more prone to anxiety while others remain calm in stressful situations?

The answer lies in three main brain systems: the limbic, the basal ganglia, and the prefrontal cortex. Each system plays a unique role in our brain function.

From brain scans, experts have discovered that the limbic system is responsible for our emotional responses. When we experience fear or pleasure, the hippocampus and amygdala activate our emotional experience. As the author suggests, we can rely on Automatic Negative Thoughts therapy (ANT) to mentally evaluate negative thoughts.

So whenever you feel a knee-jerk reaction coming up against a trigger, consider pausing to reflect on your emotion – it’s likely due to an unresolved memory stored in the limbic system.

Have you ever wondered how you can move and learn new skills? Well, you have the basal ganglia system to thank. Whenever you pick up an instrument or a new sport, this system helps you develop the muscle memory necessary to perform the task automatically later. When this system is dysfunctional, it can result in destructive anxiety levels.

We all need a healthy dose of anxiety now and then to boost motivation and punctuality, but without balance, everything can go haywire. So in the face of panic, just remember to breathe, face the situation upfront, write down stressful thoughts, and use calming supplements or medication if needed. Your basal ganglia will forever be grateful!

Then there’s the prefrontal cortex – the CEO of all brain functions. This part governs higher-order cognitive functions like decision-making, problem-solving and planning. Our cognitive abilities decline when the prefrontal cortex is constantly exposed to stress and aging. Conversely, losing focus or becoming restless is easy when it under-functions. Picking up challenging mental activities like Sudoku and puzzle-solving can make a huge difference here.

Beyond these three systems, you also function on the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) and the temporal lobes. One part keeps you adaptable, while the other rules your long-term memories, language, and social cues. With ACG imbalance, obsessive thoughts can emerge and wreak havoc on your peace of mind. Meanwhile, unbalanced temporal lobes can lead to emotional instability.

To maintain brain momentum, you must know your unique brain type – that is, how you primarily respond to life. Based on patterns seen in brain imaging studies, there are five identified types: Balanced, spontaneous, anxious, persistent, and sensitive.

In a balanced brain type, you’ll see strong connections among all active brain parts. The spontaneous brain type, meanwhile, operates mostly on active ACG and temporal lobes. In contrast, the anxious type has active basal ganglia primarily connecting with an active insula, which helps regulate subjective feelings. If you’re the persistent type, your active ACG tends to go hand in hand with an equally active caudate nucleus, which helps you control voluntary movements and learn new skills. And if you’re mostly sensitive, your active limbic system and insula tend to run the show.

It’s time to hit the next section to learn how to support your brain from the inside and out.

Hack Your Brainpower

How you eat and the kind of professional help you receive can make or break your brain-health improvement journey.

With the right diet, you can improve your brain performance while striving for overall cognitive balance. A brain-healthy diet should generally feature lean proteins, healthy fats from avocados and nuts, and fruits and vegetables.

However, consuming the right additional nutrients for your unique brain type goes a long way. According to the author, building a personalized nutrition plan with a qualified doctor can boost your brain power for the long term.

Now, why is the right healthy diet so important for brain health? It all starts with an unbreakable connection between the gut and the brain; one organ’s health determines the other. Studies cited by the author have shown that patients with depression had lower levels of certain gut bacteria needed for mood regulation. This suggests a link between gut and mental health and highlights the importance of diet in supporting gut microbiome diversity.

Besides having proper nutrition down pat, you should also seek the right professional help to manage your mental health. Mental illness can be debilitating and hard to diagnose quickly. So it’s important to get a proper diagnosis and a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses all unique brain health factors – all of which begin with brain imaging.

Did you know that even Abraham Lincoln struggled with depression throughout his life? That’s not all: His physician in 1840 diagnosed him using the same symptom observation method that many psychiatrists still use today. It’s the basis for the entire DSM-5, the mental health manual that therapists today live by.

This is why imaging technology is so important. It allows us to accurately determine the underlying biology of mental health issues and inform better treatment plans.

Speaking of underlying biological factors, a good brain-health doctor will ask questions about your medical history and scan for any existing brain injuries. You see, as a kid, President Lincoln was kicked in the head by a horse – but this was never explored as a potential factor in his lifelong depression. This is the downside of the symptom observation that we’ve inherited.

So don’t skip any details on any head injuries you may have had, whether long ago or recent. Many people forget they’ve had significant injuries, especially early in their lives, so uncovering them requires specific questioning. With this comprehensive and personalized approach to mental health, you and your doctor can address the underlying biology of mental health issues more effectively.

When you hack brain power through proper nutrition and mental-health diagnoses, it’s much easier to develop and maintain a positive outlook on life. After all, having the right mindset is everything – as we’re about to find out.

Brain Envy: Good Fuel

Have you admired someone else’s success and wished you had their brains? This “brain envy” is the idea that we can aspire to the brain health others have, and work toward achieving it for ourselves.

With a healthy brain comes an enduringly positive mindset in life.

Start healing your brain with regular checkups – this should be a priority during your annual health screening. By monitoring your brain health through periodic imaging and other tests, you can easily identify potential issues early on and take active steps to optimize physical and mental brain power. Eating better, developing more coordination-based exercises, making hobbies out of mind-stimulating board games, and enjoying positive and meaningful social connections are all among these steps.

Let’s unpack the fitness aspect further. Did you know that there are specific exercises that best fit each brain type? For example, the balanced brain would thrive on aerobic exercise, strength training, yoga, or tai chi, and mindfulness or meditation practice is all-important. Meanwhile, the inflamed brain will benefit more from low-impact routines such as yoga or tai chi. Work out a personalized fitness regime with your doctor after finding out how your brain works.

When you adopt the brain envy outlook, you will also take your stress levels more seriously. Stress can damage your brain cells, affect memory, and lead to unhealthy habits. A regular stress-management program is crucial for maintaining long-term brain health. Create a panic plan that includes breathing exercises, acceptance without judgment, and journaling. Consider taking calming supplements or medication – prescribed by your doctor, of course!

Monitoring your brain health and taking active steps to maintain it will make you feel more in control of your life. And your brain will certainly reward you for it.


The human brain rocks! To unlock its full potential, we need to take care of it. Our roadmap to a healthy brain helps you jump-start your brain-health improvement journey. When in doubt, just focus on the principles and four circles; identify and devote yourself to your brain type religiously; and keep modeling your life after smarter brains you envy.

Your brain is the boss of your body – and a healthy one is key to unlocking your best life.

About the author

Daniel G. Amen, MD, is a clinical neuroscientist, psychiatrist, and brain imaging expert who heads the world-renowned Amen Clinics. The Washington Post called Dr. Amen the most popular psychiatrist in America, and Sharecare named him the web’s #1 most influential expert and advocate on mental health. He is a distinguished fellow of the American Psychiatric Association and a nine-time New York Times bestselling author, including Change Your Brain, Change Your Life, Magnificent Mind at Any Age, and Change Your Brain, Change Your Body. He is also an internationally recognized keynote speaker and the star of several very popular public television specials.


Psychology, Health, Nutrition, Personal Development, Self Help, Science, Mental Health, Brain, Neuroscience, Self-Improvement, Success, Motivation, Self-Esteem, Technology, Cognitive Science, Relationships, Personal Growth, Physiological Aspects in Psychology, Anxiety Disorders, Emotional Self Help


NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • In this completely revised and updated edition, neuropsychiatrist Dr. Daniel Amen includes effective “brain prescriptions” that can help heal your brain and change your life.

In Change Your Brain, Change Your Life, renowned neuropsychiatrist Daniel Amen, M.D., includes new, cutting-edge research gleaned from more than 100,000 SPECT brain scans over the last quarter century and scientific evidence that your anxiety, depression, anger, obsessiveness, or impulsiveness could be related to how specific structures work in your brain. Dr. Amen’s “brain prescriptions” will help you:

  • To quell anxiety and panic: Use simple breathing techniques to immediately calm inner turmoil
  • To fight depression: Learn how to kill ANTs (automatic negative thoughts) and use supplements targeted to your brain type
  • To curb anger: Follow the Amen anti-anger diet and learn the nutrients that calm rage
  • To boost memory: Learn the specific steps and habits to decrease your risk for Alzheimer’s disease that can help you today
  • To conquer impulsiveness and learn to focus: Develop total focus with the One-Page Miracle
  • To stop obsessive worrying: Follow the “get unstuck” writing exercise and learn other problem-solving exercises

You’re not stuck with the brain you’re born with.


“Perfection in combining leading-edge brain science technology with a proven, user-friendly, definitive, and actionable road map to safeguard and enhance brain health and functionality.”—David Perlmutter, M.D., New York Times bestselling author of Grain Brain

“With a cutting-edge, easy-to-apply plan, Dr. Daniel Amen proves you needn’t succumb to depression, anger, and other negative emotions. This must-read book provides the key to heal your brain and transform your life.”—JJ Virgin, Celebrity Nutrition & Fitness Expert, Author of the NYT bestsellers: The Virgin Diet & Sugar Impact Diet

“This is the definitive manual for taking care of your brain, so it can take care of you. Prevent one of the most important hidden agers of your body.”—Sara Gottfried MD, Harvard Trained Physician and NYT bestselling author of The Hormone Cure

“Change Your Brain, Change Your Life is your manual for fully optimizing your brain. Dr. Amen and I partner with Pastor Rick Warren in creating The Daniel Plan that has helped tens of thousands of people get well by using habits that optimize decision making and brain function. His newly revised book gives readers a powerfully practical exploration into the organ that makes you who you are.”—Mark Hyman, MD, Director of the Cleveland Center for Functional Medicine and the author of the #1 New York Times Bestseller The Blood Sugar Solution.

”I consider Daniel Amen to be the most innovative psychiatrist in America. His message is simple, yet profound: you can’t have a healthy life without a healthy brain. His dietary and lifestyle strategies to maintain brain health are based on the world’s most comprehensive library of brain imaging technology that allows one to observe the impact of his recommendations. If you want a more fulfilled life, this book is a must read.”—Barry Sears, Ph.D., Author of The Zone

“After 110,000 brain scans Dr. Daniel Amen is the ultimate expert on how to change your brain so that you can change your life for the better. The discovery of his wisdom and insights will make your life and brain health infinitely better.”—Mark Victor Hansen, New York Times bestselling author, Co-Creator of the Chicken Soup for the Soul series and The Miracles In You series

“No one knows more about the connection between your brain, your body, and your life than Daniel Amen. This new, updated edition of his classic book is even better than the original, and it belongs in every health library. Highly recommended!”—Jonny Bowden, PhD, CNS aka “The Nutrition Myth Buster”, author of The Great Cholesterol Myth and Smart Fat: Eat More Fat, Lose More Weight, Get Healthy Now

“Revolutionary. Dr. Amen shows how your brain can become your worst enemy, and how with the proper treatment, your best friend.”—Martin Stein, M.D., associate clinical professor of psychiatry, George Washington University

“Opens the door to assessment and interventions that can change your life.”—Robert D. Hunt, M.D., associate clinical professor of psychiatry, Vanderbilt School of Medicine

“Dr. Daniel Amen’s book represents an expert solution not only for better treating brain illness but more importantly for creating a lasting state of brain wellness.”—Cyrus Raji, MD, PhD, UCLA Medical Center, Department of Radiology

“This book is a goldmine of practical and easy-to-follow instructions on how you can you can feel sharper, happier, and more in control. Dr. Amen has condensed his 35 years of experience in treating patients with attention deficit disorder, depression, anxiety, OCD, and addiction into a practical program you can follow on your own.”—Majid Fotuhi, MD, PhD, Medical Director, NeuroGrow Brain Fitness Center

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12 Principles to Change Your Brain and Your Life

At Amen Clinics we have twelve core principles that provide the foundation for our work with patients suffering from a range of issues as well as those looking to optimize their brains. They are incredibly simple, but don’t let that fool you. They are also extremely powerful and will change everything in your life if you read, understand, and apply them.

1.Your brain is involved in everything you do and everything you are, including how you think, how you feel, how you act, and how well you get along with other people. Your brain is the organ behind your intelligence, character, personality, and every single decision you make. This is not a new idea. In about 400 BC, Hippocrates wrote, “And men ought to know that from the brain, and from the brain only, arise our pleasures, joy, laughter, and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, despondency, and tears. And by this, in a special manner, we acquire wisdom and knowledge, and see and hear, and know what is foul and what is fair, what is bad and what is good, what is sweet, and what is unsavory . . . And by the same organ we become mad and delirious, where fears and terrors assail us . . . All these things we endure from the brain, when it is not healthy . . . In these ways I am of the opinion that the brain exercises the greatest power in the man. This is the interpreter to us of those things which emanate from the air, when the brain happens to be in a sound state.” (18)

It is your brain that decides whether you should get married and if you get divorced. It is your brain that manages your money and helps you be successful at work. And it is your brain that pushes you away from the table, telling you that you have had enough (or that gives you permission to have the third bowl of ice cream). Yet most people never ­really think about their brains, which is a huge mistake, because success in anything you do starts with a healthy brain.

2.When your brain works right, you work right. But when your brain is troubled, you are much more likely to have trouble in your life. With a healthy brain you are happier, physically healthier (because you make better decisions), wealthier (also because you make better decisions), and more successful in everything you do. When your brain is unhealthy, for whatever reason (brain injuries, drug abuse, obesity, sleep apnea, mold toxicity, etc.), you are sadder, sicker, poorer, and less successful. In all the books about success on the shelf at your local bookstore, virtually none of them talk about optimizing the physical health of your brain. Based on our work with tens of thousands of people, we believe it is always the first place to start.

Image 1:1

If you ­really understand principle number 2 it can be disturbing, because it directly challenges the notion of free will. Most people think of free will as black or white: you have it or you don’t. Our imaging work has taught me that free will is a gray concept. Some of us have great overall brain function and likely have a very high percentage of free will; while others, often through no fault of their own, such as having been in a car accident, have less healthy brains, leading to less free will and more troubled lives.

3.Your brain is the most amazing, ­energy-­hungry organ in the universe. It is estimated that your brain has one hundred billion cells, with each one connected to other cells by up to ten thousand individual connections. It has also been estimated that you have more connections in your brain than there are stars in the universe. Let’s put this in ­binge-­ watching television terms: it’s been estimated that the brain has the storage capacity of three million hours of TV shows (19).

Even though your brain is only about 2 percent of your ­body’s weight (about three pounds), it uses 20 to 30 percent of the calories you consume and 20 percent of your ­body’s blood flow. Take a moment to consider that. Your brain is the most metabolically expensive real estate in your body. This is important to understand, because any form of oxygen deprivation state, from a scary event like a ­near-­drowning episode to the seemingly commonplace, like having sleep apnea, can damage your brain.

4.Your brain is the consistency of soft butter and housed in a ­really hard skull with multiple sharp bony ridges, making it easily injured. Think of something that falls in between ­Jell-­O and egg whites on the softness ­spectrum—that’s your brain. For extra credit, visit this link to watch a video of a newly autopsied brain, so you can see how soft it ­really is: ­­nUhUY. Now imagine it encased in a ­really hard skull with many sharp bony ridges (see Image 1:2). Jarring motions and head injuries can cause the brain to slam into the hard interior of the skull, causing brain injuries that can ruin lives.

Soft brain + hard skull with sharp ridges = trouble

Image 1:2: Inside the Skull

Notice the sharp bony ridges.

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a major cause of psychiatric illness and few people know this, because most psychiatrists never look at the brain. TBI has been linked to homelessness, drug and alcohol abuse, anxiety, panic attacks, depression, ADD/ADHD, learning problems, school failure, murder, suicide, domestic violence, job failure, and incarceration. In a study I did at Sierra Tucson, a psychiatric hospital in Arizona, 44 percent of new admissions had a significant history of brain injury. In another study of homeless people in Toronto, 58 percent of the men and 42 percent of the women had had a significant brain injury before becoming homeless.

At the time of this writing, more than three hundred thousand veterans have sustained a TBI since 2000 (8); the effects of such injuries can follow people for the rest of their lives, indicating that it’s likely those veterans and society will feel the consequences for many decades to come.

Two million new TBIs occur each year as a result of falls, accidents, and concussions. We have to do a much better job of preventing TBIs and repairing the brain once they occur. When President Barack Obama and LeBron James, both huge sports fans, said they would not let their children play tackle football, it was a sign that awareness about the effects of TBI are starting to become part of our cultural fabric.

5.Many things hurt the brain. Obviously, drugs, too much alcohol, infections, environmental toxins, and traumatic head injuries are bad for your brain. But research also tells us that obesity (20); sleep apnea (21); hypertension (22, 23), and even high normal blood pressure levels; diabetes (24, 25), prediabetes, and even high normal blood sugar levels; many medications, such as benzodiazepines (26, 27); the Standard American Diet (SAD), filled with processed foods, pesticides (28, 29), sugar, and artificial colors and sweeteners; unbalanced hormone levels; chronic stress (30, 31); negative thinking; even spending time with unhealthy people are all bad for the brain. Take a moment to think how many of these factors might be affecting you.

6. Many things help the brain. The exciting news is that many things are also good for your brain and can boost its function, such as learning new things; great nutrition; coordination exercises; meditation; loving relationships; and certain nutrients, including vitamins B6, B12, and D, methyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF), ­omega-­3 fatty acids, and phosphatidylserine. In many ways, the best thing you can do for your brain is to spend time with healthy people. As we will see, they are contagious. I often say the fastest way to get healthy is to find the healthiest person you can stand and then spend as much time around him or her as possible. Chapters 19 and 20, give a detailed description of what you can do to enhance your brain.

7.Certain systems in the brain tend to do specific things, and problems in these systems tend to cause symptoms that can benefit from targeted treatments. Knowing about your brain can help you understand yourself and others. This is one of the main areas of focus for this book. You’ll learn about the five major brain systems involved with feelings, thinking, and behavior, including the limbic or emotional brain (mood and bonding), basal ganglia (motivation, pleasure, and anxiety), prefrontal cortex (the brain’s ­CEO—focus, forethought, and judgment), anterior cingulate gyrus (detects errors and helps shift attention), and the temporal lobes (memory, learning, and mood stability). Specifically, we will look at the latest research about what each system does, what happens when things go wrong, and how to help them.

8.Looking at the brain gives us the opportunity for many powerful insights not possible by just listening to symptoms alone. After looking at more than one hundred thousand brain scans we know that if you don’t look at how the brain functions in individual patients, you are ­really just guessing at ­what’s wrong with them. Without imaging an individual’s brain, physicians miss important causes of cognitive, emotional, or behavioral problems, such as brain injuries, toxic exposures, or infections. People end up misdiagnosed and mistreated.

Adrianna, age sixteen, went on a mountain vacation with her family. When they arrived at their cabin they were surrounded by six deer. It was a beautiful moment. Ten days later Adrianna became agitated and started having auditory hallucinations. Her parents sought help for Adrianna, who was admitted to a psychiatric hospital and prescribed antipsychotic medications, which ­didn’t help. The next three months were a torturous road of different doctors and multiple medications, at a cost of nearly $100,000. Adrianna had become a shadow of her former self. Desperate, her parents brought Adrianna in for a scan, which showed areas of unusually high activity. It caused us to look deeper at the potential causes of her symptoms, such as an infection or toxicity. It turned out Adrianna had Lyme disease, an infection, often caused by deer ticks. Treatment with antibiotics helped her get her life back.

Imaging immediately decreases stigma as people begin to see their problems as medical and not moral. We have nothing else in psychiatry that is this powerful or immediate. Imaging increases treatment compliance, because people want a better brain so they can have a better life.


After I gave a lecture to a group called the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI), one of the NAMI officers brought her son, who had paranoid schizophrenia and addiction issues, to one of our clinics. Steve had been living on the streets of San Francisco and could not live at home because of his violent, erratic behavior and his refusal to get treatment. During his clinical interview, our historian knocked on my door and told me she ­didn’t feel comfortable seeing Steve alone; he scared her. As I introduced myself to Steve it was clear he was psychotic and was agitated being at the clinic. He told me in a loud voice that he would not take medication and I ­couldn’t make him. To settle the tension, I asked if I could get him a cup of water.

As we talked, I told him I ­didn’t want him to do anything he ­didn’t want to do, but wondered if it would be okay to scan his brain. Seeing the brain SPECT scans on the walls of the clinic, he was curious and agreed to be scanned. After his scan we looked at it together. It showed high levels of damage. When I showed him a healthy scan (Image 1.3) compared to his scan (Image 1.4), he just stared at them without saying a word.

After about five minutes Steve looked at me, which was the first time we actually had eye contact, and he asked if I could help him. The scans helped him make the shift from being angry and in denial to being open to working with me to get a better brain. This was a pivotal ­moment—one that the scans had given us with our patients thousands of times before. I told him we had better medications than the ones he had been on in the past and prescribed a low dose of a newer antipsychotic medication. I then gave him an appointment for three weeks later.

A week later I walked into my waiting room to get a new patient and saw Steve’s mother sitting there and wondered to myself why she was at the clinic without an appointment. All of a sudden she stood up, grabbed me, and kissed me on the cheek.

“Thank you,” I said, a little bewildered. “Why did you do that?”

“You can’t believe how much better Steve is,” she said. “He is not hallucinating, he’s not aggressive, and we can have him at home. I am so grateful.”

A few weeks later I saw Steve for his first ­follow‑up visit. He was remorseful for his prior behavior and grateful he was feeling better. We did a ­follow‑up scan, which was dramatically better. I put his original scan next to his new one and asked him, “Which brain do you want?”

He said, “I want the healthy one.”

“Then you have to take your medication,” I replied.

The scans made all the difference for Steve and those he loved. Imaging completely changes the discussion around mental health:

What If Mental Health Was ­Really Brain Health?

With the pervasive stigma around mental health issues, few people want to see a psychiatrist, but almost everyone wants a better brain! Imaging helps to create brain envy. When people see their own brains, they usually want it to be better, like Steve, so they treat it better. Know better, do better.

9.Psychiatric illnesses are not single or simple disorders in the brain. Each one has multiple types that require unique treatments. One treatment will never work for everyone. Based on our imaging work, it is very clear that giving someone the diagnosis of depression is exactly like giving them a diagnosis of chest pain. No doctor would do that, because it ­doesn’t tell you what is causing it or what to do for it. The same thing is true for psychiatric illnesses. Depression is a cluster of symptoms, not a disease. It has too many causes and each requires its own treatment. Rather than simply give you a diagnostic label based on symptoms, we need to understand why you are anxious or have attention problems or temper issues. Based on our imaging work, I’ve described seven types of anxiety and depression, seven types of ADD, six types of addicts and five types of overeaters.

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