How does successful innovation work, and how can you get started? In this book, social scientist and Columbia Business School professor Sheena Iyengar introduces Think Bigger, a method for devising creative solutions to complex problems. Building on decades of research on creativity and human psychology, it models the real-life creative process in six concrete, actionable steps. This book is easy to navigate and generous in its detail. It would suit anyone seeking a structured guide to rigorous idea generation and vetting, from corporate teams to individual artists and entrepreneurs.
- Anyone can access the building blocks of creativity.
- Innovation starts by identifying a problem you are motivated to and can feasibly solve.
- Break your problem down, so you can focus on solving the subproblems.
- A good solution satisfies the desires of the innovator(s), the target audience and third-party stakeholders.
- Structure your search for solutions by using a Choice Map and Big Picture Score.
- Before committing to your idea, learn how others react to it.
Anyone can access the building blocks of creativity.
Everyday discourse on innovation portrays creativity as a rare and innate gift. There are creative types, and then there is everyone else. Those with creative capacity are just born that way – so the thinking goes – blessed with the ability to dream up brilliant ideas from nothing. The popular distinction between “right-brained” and “left-brained” thinking supports this notion, suggesting that some people are wired to see the world in curlicues and colors rather than boring, straight lines.
None of this is true.
Decades of research shows that anyone can be creative; moreover, creativity is not limited to any particular type of mental activity. When you break creativity down into its basic elements, it turns out that those building blocks are familiar to everyone.
Innovation is a skill you can learn and practice. This is because innovation is, simply, taking existing ideas and bringing them together in new and helpful ways that allow you to better “solve a complex problem.” Zany inventions, groundbreaking artwork, disruptive business ideas – all of these creative products are the end result of the same essential process. Their creators recycle existing “parts” to create something novel. By following the steps of the Think Bigger process, you can do the same.
“All thinking is an act of memory in some form.”
The Think Bigger process builds on Learning+Memory, the leading neuroscientific model of the brain. This theory places memory at the center of humans’ mental activity. The act of solving a math problem, for example, is not purely logical; it involves remembering and creatively recombining those memories to find the answer. You cannot even recognize something – like, say, a dog – without drawing on your memories of similar objects. Thus, the quality of your ideas depends on what you’ve got stored “on the shelves of your brain.” Creative problem-solving is not a matter of tapping into a mysterious inner power; it’s about gathering all the relevant pieces of the puzzle so that you can put them together. Innovation uses cognitive tools that you already possess.
Of course, there are steps you can take to enhance your creativity. Researchers have pinpointed the following areas:
- Personal qualities – What sets creative people apart is curiosity and persistence, traits you can cultivate.
- Workspace – You don’t need anything fancy. The optimal space is free of distractions, but still fosters casual connection with others.
- Structure – When people face too many options, cognitive overload leads to either bad decisions or no decision at all. As jazz musicians have long understood, establishing some constraints fosters creativity.
- Going solo – Skip the brainstorming sessions; individuals produce more unique ideas alone than in a group. Complete each step of Think Bigger on your own before discussing it with others. Keep groups to five people or fewer to bring out the best from each member.
Innovation starts by identifying a problem you are motivated to and can feasibly solve.
Problem-solving is part and parcel of innovation. That means problem identification is essential. If a creation does not solve a real problem, people will not want it. Lack of clarity on the issue can lead to wasted efforts, especially for a group, because individuals tend to see complex problems differently. This is not a step to rush through, and you should mentally prepare to revisit your problem statement even after moving forward in the Think Bigger process.
“There is a long list of creations that inventors devised without trying to solve a problem. And they fail.”
Try articulating your candidate problem in three sentences or fewer, remembering that this is only a draft. If you are struggling to choose a problem to tackle, take daily notes on your interests, anything that sparks a sense of purpose and any issues you face frequently – these may point you in promising directions.
When you have a problem you want to tackle, rephrase it in “how” language, like “How do I grow my business?” or “How do I reduce food waste?” Make sure the question is open-ended, free of any assumptions about what the solution will be.
With your problem statement in this format, you are ready for Step Analysis. Your purpose here is to strike the right balance between ambition and realism in your problem statement. To find the optimal level of challenge, “step up” (widen) and “step down” (narrow) your problem statement. For a draft problem about reducing food waste, a step down could be, “How do I reduce food waste in my city?” The right level will feel both feasible and motivating.
Solving your problem will likely demand significant time and energy. Before you commit to it, put it through the Passion Test. Prepare to describe your problem aloud in three to five minutes, then share it with 25 people. Afterward, assess your degree of excitement. Based on your inner reaction, you may want to revisit your Step Analysis or even choose a different problem altogether. If you do, be sure to return to this step before moving ahead with Think Bigger.
Break your problem down, so you can focus on solving the subproblems.
Complex problems are made up of smaller subproblems. Each one is “a piece of the larger puzzle.” When you put their solutions together, you’ve solved the main problem. A good problem breakdown clarifies your overall problem statement and lends greater focus to your efforts.
Write each subproblem in the same open-ended, “how” format as your problem statement. Say your problem statement is, “How do we make it easier for blind people to plan vacations?” An example subproblem would be, “How can a blind person navigate a new area that’s not blind-friendly?” Refine your list until it contains five subproblems or fewer – any more than this tends to be overwhelming.
At this point, you should take your draft breakdown to experts, potential users and non-experts for input. Speak to each person individually to maximize the variety of perspectives you hear and to probe for detail. Remember that the goal is to improve your problem breakdown, not to discuss solutions. Continue until you stop learning anything new, revising your breakdown along the way.
“Keep going until you feel you understand the problem deeply, from many different angles.”
Note that these discussions will probably inspire ideas for solutions. Write these down as they come and set them aside for future steps of Think Bigger.
When you have learned what you can from both “insiders” and “outsiders,” ask yourself: Would solving all these subproblems solve at least 80% of the overall problem? When you are confident that solving the subproblems would yield a solution that significantly improves on the status quo, you are ready to proceed.
A good solution satisfies the desires of the innovator(s), the target audience and third-party stakeholders.
Before plunging into the search for solutions, you must understand the preferences of the people who matter for your endeavor. Not just any solution will do, because everyone involved has their own motivations and desires. In this step, you develop a set of criteria to help you choose between potential solutions. Your guiding principle is this: What would the ideal solution feel like for each important group of people?
“If you don’t satisfy the wants of the innovator, nothing happens at all.”
There are three important groups:
- The innovator(s) – If your proposed solution is unsatisfying to you for whatever reason, you probably won’t see it through.
- The target audience – This group includes users and anyone else directly affected by your solution. Their wants are crucial; even artists and musicians cannot afford to please only themselves.
- Third parties – This group includes others who can affect the viability of your solution: allies, gatekeepers, competitors and anyone else who has something to gain or lose.
Articulate your own desires in writing, then use interviews to probe your target audience and third parties. The end result of this step is a list of three to five key “wants” for each group. A musician solving the problem of how to write his next hit song might write, for example, “I want the song to sound folksier than my past work.”
Save these findings for later; they will guide your decision-making after you have developed potential solutions.
Structure your search for solutions by using a Choice Map and Big Picture Score.
It is time to innovate in earnest. In this step, you identify the best tactics for addressing your subproblems, play with many combinations of these tactics and use the “wants” you articulated in the previous step to choose an overall solution.
First, create a table with your overarching problem in the header and the subproblems listed in the left-most column. This is the beginning of your Choice Map, where you track your search for tactics. The premise is this: Has anyone, anywhere, at any time, solved one of your subproblems? If so, learn from their success.
“The best way to think outside the box is to literally go into other boxes.”
Split your search into two areas: “in domain” and “out of domain.” An in-domain solution is a successful practice within your problem area, while out-of-domain solutions come from other fields. Source potential tactics from web searches and conversations with others. Experts can provide examples on best practices in their own domain. When searching for written information, investigate not only your target industry, but others that may share the subproblem.
These approaches will yield a number of successful tactics, but only the best should make it onto your Choice Map. In each row, beside the target subproblem, add brief labels for your top tactics, starting with in-domain findings and ending with options from outside your problem area. For each subproblem, select two proven in-domain tactics and three out-of-domain – this imbalance will nudge your thinking in a more creative direction. When your Choice Map is filled out, you are ready to start combining tactics to find overall solutions.
“To get the highest-quality ideas, you must persist beyond what you think is possible.”
Combination works by selecting one tactic for each subproblem and imagining how they might come together to solve your main problem. You can do this strategically by picking out tactics that seem complementary. However, you will naturally “anchor” to your preexisting notions of a good solution, even when they are not the best or most creative options. To break out of this pattern, try using a random number generator or similar tool to select a tactic from each row. Some tactics may seem impossible to meld. Mull over these combinations for a while anyway – users of Think Bigger report that random selection produces the most promising, out-of-the-box solutions of any they found. Repeat this combination process many times, writing a brief description of the solution for each version, and share your ideas with others.
After selecting your top five or so ideas, prepare to choose a front-runner using the Big Picture Score. This metric is based on the lists of “wants” you made earlier in Think Bigger. It indicates which of your ideas satisfies the greatest number of desires across each of the three groups you identified: innovator(s), target audience and third parties. This step may not be straightforward: Some ideas could tie, or you may wish to revise your work from previous steps. In the end, however, you should be left with one solution that solves all of your subproblems, improves the status quo in your problem area and excites you and your team.
Before committing to your idea, learn how others react to it.
Do others see your idea – its novelty, the possibilities it creates – the same way you do? Until you know what people see when you articulate your solution, it remains incomplete. The purpose of this step is to change, expand or refine your idea by observing how it strikes other people – particularly, whether it gives the impression you intend. You are not conducting user research, garnering support or getting input on whether to pursue the solution. This step involves four feedback exercises.
The first is verbalization. Describe your idea to yourself, aloud, from memory, then write down what you said. Edit, re-read, set aside and repeat the exercise. Describing the idea to yourself in this way may be enough to change the way you see it. Describing it to others almost certainly will, because you will rethink the idea with their perspective in mind. Share your idea with someone else and note any changes in your choice of phrasing or emotional state.
“The simple knowledge that someone is listening makes [you] process information through the eyes of an observer.”
The second exercise gathers experts’ reactions. After describing the problem, your solution and its significance, ask experts neutral questions like, “How would you improve the idea?” Steer them away from blanket judgments or predictions about your success. Afterward, learn from any assumptions they made or suggestions that were new to you. As with previous steps, continue until your findings repeat.
The third exercise gauges whether others’ impressions of your idea align with your own. Briefly describe your idea, then ask non-experts to say it back to you. After enough time has passed for your conversation partner to stop thinking about what you shared – two days is usually enough for someone outside your problem area – circle back, without forewarning, to see what they remember. Their recollections (or lack thereof) are a gold mine of information about how well you framed the idea, what is memorable about it and the emotions it provokes.
In the final exercise, again describe your solution, but then give your listeners free rein to reimagine your idea. How would they change it? Their answers may lead to further insights and possibilities you can use to refine your solution.
If, after all this, you still feel excited about tackling your problem with the solution you have devised, you are done with Think Bigger. It’s time to implement.
About the Author
Sheena S. Iyengar is the S.T. Lee Professor of Business in the Management Division at Columbia Business School. Her expertise is in choice and decision-making, and this is her second book on the topic.
I have read the book [Think Bigger: How to Innovate] by [Sheena Iyengar] and I will provide you with a brief review of it.
Think Bigger is a book that aims to help readers generate big ideas that can solve real problems and create value. The book is written by Sheena Iyengar, a professor of business and an expert in the science of choice. The book is based on her research and interviews with innovators from various fields and industries.
The book is divided into four parts: The Problem, The Solution, The Transformation, and The Details. In the first part, Iyengar defines what innovation is and why it is important. She also explains the common barriers and biases that prevent us from thinking bigger and being more creative. She argues that we often limit ourselves by following conventional rules and assumptions, relying on existing knowledge and methods, and avoiding uncertainty and risk.
In the second part, Iyengar presents her evidence-backed method for generating big ideas that she and her team developed and tested over the last decade. She calls it the “Think Bigger Method”, which consists of four steps: Define, Discover, Design, and Deliver. She explains each step in detail and provides examples and tools to guide the reader through the process.
In the third part, Iyengar shows how to apply the Think Bigger Method to different types of problems and domains, such as social issues, business challenges, personal goals, and artistic endeavors. She also shares stories of successful innovators who used the method or similar approaches to create impactful solutions.
In the fourth part, Iyengar addresses some frequently asked questions and common concerns about innovation, such as how to measure its value, how to protect its ownership, how to collaborate with others, how to deal with failure, and how to foster a culture of innovation.
The book is written in a clear and engaging style that makes it easy to read and understand. The book is also practical and actionable; it provides concrete steps and strategies that can be implemented immediately by anyone who wants to think bigger and innovate. The book is not very long or technical; it can be read in one sitting or in small sections.
My feedback on this book is that it is a helpful and insightful book that introduces a novel and effective method for generating big ideas that can solve real problems and create value. It offers a scientific perspective on how innovation works and how we can improve our creative thinking skills. It also offers a personal perspective on how innovation can enrich our lives and the world around us.
The book is not perfect; it has some limitations and drawbacks. For instance:
- The book is not very comprehensive or diverse; it focuses mainly on one method of innovation: the Think Bigger Method. It does not explore other methods or models of innovation that may have different advantages or disadvantages.
- The book is not very balanced or objective; it relies mainly on the author’s own research and opinions which may be biased or subjective. It also does not include or consider other perspectives or approaches that may differ or disagree with the author’s views.
- The book is not very original or innovative; it does not present any new or groundbreaking ideas or concepts on innovation or creativity. It mostly synthesizes existing knowledge and wisdom from other sources.
- The book is not very humble or modest; it showcases the author’s achievements and credentials which may seem boastful or arrogant.
However, these limitations do not diminish the value or quality of the book; they are rather part of its scope and purpose. They reflect the author’s style and intention as a researcher and writer: to provide an academic and analytical account of innovation as a problem-solving tool.